Emotional Intelligence theory of Daniel Goleman's, Concept of emotional intelligence, Origin of Emotional Intelligence, Characteristics of emotional skills



Daniel Goleman's theory of Emotional Intelligence Emotional competencies is more important in contributing to work excellence than pure intellect and expertise (EQ beats IQ). Emotional intelligence describes the ability, capacity, skill, to identify, assess and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others and of groups. Emotional intelligence is a critical part of social intelligence.  Emotional intelligence can be abbreviated to EI and can also be referred to as emotional quotient (EQ). Some research shows that intelligence quotient, IQ contributes only about 20% to success in life. The rest of 80% success depends on one’s EQ. The concept of Emotional intelligence was formally introduced by Professors Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer of the University of New Hampshire in 1990.  Daniel Goleman, a psychologist and science journalist popularized the term emotional intelligence in 1995 in the title of his bestselling book, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Emotional intelligence is more important for a happy and productive life. People who are positive have been shown to live longer. Leaders high in emotional intelligence are more productive. Emotional intelligence determines ‘one’s ultimate niche in society.’ Research shows that “emotion makes thinking more intelligent.”



Emotional Intelligence (EI), often referred to as Emotional Quotient (EQ), is a concept that encompasses a set of emotional and social skills that influence how individuals perceive, understand, manage, and regulate emotions, both in themselves and in others. Developed by psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer and popularized by author Daniel Goleman, the concept of emotional intelligence has gained widespread recognition and has been applied in various fields, including psychology, leadership, education, and workplace development.

The core components of emotional intelligence include:

1. Self-Awareness:
   - The ability to recognize and understand one's own emotions, including their impact on thoughts and behavior. Self-aware individuals are in touch with their feelings and can accurately assess their strengths and weaknesses.

2. Self-Regulation:
   - The capacity to manage and control one's emotions and impulses. This involves staying calm under pressure, adapting to change, and maintaining composure in challenging situations.

3. Motivation:
   - The ability to channel emotions in the pursuit of goals and to remain driven and focused despite setbacks. Motivated individuals have a strong sense of purpose and are resilient in the face of challenges.

4. Empathy:
   - The skill of understanding and sharing the feelings of others. Empathetic individuals can tune into the emotions of those around them, fostering positive relationships and effective communication.

5. Social Skills:
   - The ability to navigate social situations, build rapport, and work effectively in groups. Socially skilled individuals can influence and inspire others, resolve conflicts, and collaborate towards common objectives.

The concept of emotional intelligence is often depicted as a set of interconnected skills that contribute to overall personal and interpersonal effectiveness. Here are some key aspects:

- Personal Competence:
  - Encompasses self-awareness and self-regulation. It involves understanding and managing one's emotions, allowing for better decision-making and adaptability.

- Social Competence:
  - Involves empathy and social skills. Individuals with high social competence are effective in understanding others' emotions, building strong relationships, and navigating social dynamics.

- Emotional Intelligence in Leadership:
  - Emotional intelligence is highly valued in leadership roles. Leaders with strong emotional intelligence can inspire and motivate their teams, navigate conflicts, and create a positive and inclusive work environment.

- Development and Training:
  - Emotional intelligence is not fixed; it can be developed and improved through self-awareness, learning, and practice. Training programs often focus on enhancing emotional intelligence skills for personal and professional growth.

Emotional intelligence is considered a crucial factor in personal and professional success. It plays a significant role in various aspects of life, including effective communication, collaboration, leadership, and overall well-being. Individuals and organizations that prioritize the development of emotional intelligence often experience improved relationships, higher job satisfaction, and enhanced performance.

 



The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has its origins in the early 20th century, but it gained prominence and recognition in the 1990s through the work of several researchers and authors. Here are key milestones in the development and popularization of the concept:

1. Early Psychological Theories:
   - The roots of emotional intelligence can be traced back to early psychological theories that emphasized the importance of emotions in human behavior. Psychologists such as William James and John Dewey explored the role of emotions in cognition and decision-making.

2. Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory (1983):
   - In 1983, Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences, which challenged the traditional notion of a single, general intelligence. Gardner's model included various intelligences, one of which was interpersonal intelligence, reflecting an understanding of others' emotions.

3. Salovey and Mayer's Model (1990):
   - In 1990, Peter Salovey and John Mayer published a groundbreaking paper that introduced the concept of emotional intelligence as a distinct form of intelligence. They defined emotional intelligence as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions."

4. Daniel Goleman's Popularization (1995):
   - The term "emotional intelligence" gained widespread popularity when journalist and author Daniel Goleman published the book "Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ" in 1995. Goleman expanded on the work of Salovey and Mayer, bringing the concept to a broader audience.

5. Goleman's Model of Emotional Intelligence (1998):
   - In his subsequent book "Working with Emotional Intelligence" (1998), Goleman presented a model that included five components of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. This model became widely accepted and influential.

6. Research and Applications:
   - Following the popularization of emotional intelligence, research in the fields of psychology, education, and business explored its impact on various aspects of life, including relationships, mental health, workplace success, and leadership.

7. Integration in Organizational Practices:
   - Organizations began recognizing the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace. Leadership development programs and training initiatives incorporated emotional intelligence as a critical competency for effective leadership, communication, and collaboration.





The concept of emotional intelligence includes two-component terms, intelligence, and emotion. Intelligence belongs to the cognitive sphere of mental functioning whereas emotions belong to the affective sphere of mental functioning. Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. The word emotion comes from the Latin word ‘remove’ which means ‘to move from.’ According to Webster’s 1928 Dictionary emotion is ‘moving of the mind or soul.’ There are six essentially universal emotions- anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise – with most other emotions included within these six categories (Robbins and Judge 2009).  Everyone experiences and relates to feelings and emotions. Emotions contain valuable information on relationships, behavior and practically every aspect of the human world around us. Emotional Intelligence


Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotions.
Salovey and Mayer (1997) defined emotional intelligence as “the ability to perceive emotions, integrate emotions to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth.”
Goleman (1998) defined Emotional intelligence as ‘the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.”  
Reuven Bar-on (1997) described EQ as “an array of personal, emotional and social abilities and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures”.





There are two basic principles associated with emotional intelligence. First emotional intelligence is about being aware of emotions –identifying and understanding emotions-both of your own and other people’s emotions. Second emotional intelligence is about using and managing emotions of our own and other people’s.
Emotional quotient, EQ
EQ is an inventory designed to measure the capacity of effectively recognizing and managing our own emotions and those of others. EQ is the ability to make deeper connections at 3 levels: with ourselves (personal mastery), with another person (one-to-one) and within groups/ teams.



1. Ability EI model the mental ability model focuses on emotions themselves and their interactions with thought (Mayer and Salovey 1997). This model proposes four main types of emotional abilities:
Emotional perception refers to the ability to recognize and decipher emotions in oneself and others as well as other stimuli including faces, pictures, stories and music.
Emotional use refers to the ability to apply emotions to cognitive activities such as thinking, reasoning, problem-solving and decision making.
Emotional understanding refers to the ability to understand emotional information and the causes of emotions and how emotions combine, progress and change from one to another.
Emotional management refers to the ability to be open to feelings and employ effective strategies to promote personal understanding and growth.


2. Trait EI model this model was published in 2009 by Petrides and colleagues. Trait EI model is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality.  Trait EI model refers to an individual’s own perceptions of their emotional abilities, as opposed to the ability-based model which refers to actual abilities.




3. Mixed models of EI- This model is introduced by Daniel Goleman that defines EI as a wide range of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. There are four tenets to this model:
Self-awareness is the ability to understand your emotions, recognize their impact and use them to inform decisions.
Self-management involves controlling your emotions and impulses and adapting to circumstances.
Social awareness is the ability to sense, understand and react to the emotions of others within social situations.
Relationship management is the ability to inspire, influence and connect with others and to manage conflict.



The emotional brain (EB) is that part of the human brain that generates emotions. The amygdala –the part of the limbic brain –is considered to be the emotional center of our brain and performs a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions. Amygdala is an almond-shaped brain structure in the limbic system. The emotional response is relatively less influenced by genetic factors and more by the limbic system of the brain. People seem to develop greater emotional intelligence not in early childhood but in the adult years. Emotional intelligence seems to be largely a learned response. We continue to develop EI as we go through life and learn from our experiences. 



There are five key characteristics that distinguish an emotionally intelligent person.

Self-awareness- having a realistic assessment of his abilities.

Self-regulation – ability to control emotions and impulses.

Motivation deepest preference to achieve our goals.

Empathy –is the ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of other people.

Social skills – People with good social skills can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships. People with good social skills can persuade and lead, negotiate and settle disputes for cooperation and teamwork.

Daniel Goleman (1995) suggests that emotional intelligence consists of five major components:

1.Knowing our own emotions.
2. Managing one’s emotions.
3. Motivating our emotions.
4.Recognizing the emotions of others and
5.Handling relationships.


·Emotionally intelligent people manage stress better at work.

·They improve their relationships with co-workers.

· They deal more effectively with their supervisors.

· They are more productive and effectively manage their work priorities.

· They become a better team player, managers or leaders.

*Increase workplace productivity.
*Reduce stress.
*Moderate conflict.
*Promote understanding and relationships.
*Foster stability and continuity.
*Heighten self-awareness.


1. Emotional intelligence is primarily about managing oneself well and enhancing one’s relationship with others in order to be happier, healthier and more successful.

2. According to research at the University of Toronto, positive, happy emotions and moods may open one’s mind and increase creative thinking.

3. Positive emotions enhance problem-solving skills so that positive people find better solutions to problems (Isen 2001).

4. Emotionally intelligent people can help manage stressful situations and improve negotiation and conflict resolution.

5. Multiple studies have shown that the most successful leaders in organizations have higher levels of emotional intelligence than others. 
Emotional intelligence has been shown to be more important in rising to the top of an organization than cognitive competencies. Companies have realized that IQ alone cannot predict an individual’s performance or success.

6. Emotional intelligence is the most significant for successful project outcomes. Project managers must be emotionally intelligent.

7. Research indicates that social and emotional skills are associated with successes ineffective teaching, student learning, quality student-teacher relationships, and academic performance.

8. Physicians who are better at recognizing emotions of patients are more successful at treating them than their less sensitive counterparts.

9. Executives who ‘derail’ are often seen as lacking emotional strength.
          Emotional intelligence influences job performance

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