Basic aspects of HTTP HTTP के बुनियादी पहलुओं - EM

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Saturday, 5 August 2017

Basic aspects of HTTP HTTP के बुनियादी पहलुओं

Basic aspects of HTTP



HTTP is simple

Even with more complexity, introduced in HTTP/2 by encapsulating HTTP messages into frames, HTTP is generally designed to be simple and human readable. HTTP messages can be read and understood by humans, providing easier developer testing, and reduced complexity for new-comers.

HTTP is extensible

Introduced in HTTP/1.0, HTTP headers made this protocol easy to extend and experiment with. New functionality can even be introduced by a simple agreement between a client and a server about a new header's semantics.

HTTP is stateless, but not sessionless

HTTP is stateless: there is no link between two requests being successively carried out on the same connection. This immediately has the prospect of being problematic for users attempting to interact with certain pages coherently, for example, using e-commerce shopping baskets. But while the core of HTTP itself is stateless, HTTP cookies allow the use of stateful sessions. Using header extensibility, HTTP Cookies are added to the workflow, allowing session creation on each HTTP request to share the same context, or the same state.

HTTP and connections

A connection is controlled at the transport layer, and therefore fundamentally out of scope for HTTP. Though HTTP doesn't require the underlying transport protocol to be connection-based; only requiring it to be reliable, or not lose messages (so at minimum presenting an error). Among the two most common transport protocols on the Internet, TCP is reliable and UDP isn't. HTTP subsequently relies on the TCP standard, which is connection-based, even though a connection is not always required.
HTTP/1.0 opened a TCP connection for each request/response exchange, introducing two major flaws: opening a connection needs several round-trips of messages and therefore slow, but becomes more efficient when several messages are sent, and regularly sent: warm connections are more efficient than cold ones.
In order to mitigate these flaws, HTTP/1.1 introduced pipelining (which proved difficult to implement) and persistent connections: the underlying TCP connection can be partially controlled using the Connection header. HTTP/2 went a step further by multiplexing messages over a single connection, helping keep the connection warm, and more efficient.
Experiments are in progress to design a better transport protocol more suited to HTTP. For example, Google is experimenting with QUIC which builds on UDP to provide a more reliable and efficient transport protocol.

What can be controlled by HTTP

This extensible nature of HTTP has, over time, allowed for more control and functionality of the Web. Cache or authentication methods were functions handled early in HTTP history. The ability to relax the origin constraint, by contrast, has only been added in the 2010s.
  • Cache
    How documents are cached can be controlled by HTTP. The server can instruct proxies, and clients, what to cache and for how long. The client can instruct intermediate cache proxies to ignore the stored document.
  • Relaxing the origin constraint
    To prevent snooping and other privacy invasions, Web browsers enforce strict separation between Web sites. Only pages from the same origin can access all the information of a Web page. Though such constraint is a burden to the server, so HTTP headers can relax this strict separation server-side, allowing a document to become a patchwork of information sourced from different domains (there could even be security-related reasons to do so).
  • Authentication
    Some pages may be protected so only specific users can access it. Basic authentication may be provided by HTTP, either using the WWW-Authenticate and similar headers, or by setting a specific session using HTTP cookies.
  • Proxy and tunneling
    Servers and/or clients are often located on intranets and hide their true IP address to others. HTTP requests then go through proxies to cross this network barrier. Not all proxies are HTTP proxies. The SOCKS protocol, for example, operates at a lower level. Others, like ftp, can be handled by these proxies.
  • Sessions
    Using HTTP cookies allows you to link requests with the state of the server. This creates sessions, despite basic HTTP being a state-less protocol. This is useful not only for e-commerce shopping baskets, but also for any site allowing user configuration of the output.

HTTP flow

When the client wants to communicate with a server, either being the final server or an intermediate proxy, it performs the following steps:
  1. Open a TCP connection: The TCP connection will be used to send a request, or several, and receive an answer. The client may open a new connection, reuse an existing connection, or open several TCP connections to the servers.
  2. Send an HTTP message: HTTP messages (before HTTP/2) are human-readable. With HTTP/2, these simple messages are encapsulated in frames, making them impossible to read directly, but the principle remains the same.
    GET / HTTP/1.1
    Host: developer.mozilla.org
    Accept-Language: fr
  3. Read the response sent by the server:
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Date: Sat, 09 Oct 2010 14:28:02 GMT
    Server: Apache
    Last-Modified: Tue, 01 Dec 2009 20:18:22 GMT
    ETag: "51142bc1-7449-479b075b2891b"
    Accept-Ranges: bytes
    Content-Length: 29769
    Content-Type: text/html
    
    <!DOCTYPE html... (here comes the 29769 bytes of the requested web page)
  4. Close or reuse the connection for further requests.
If HTTP pipelining is activated, several requests can be sent without waiting for the first response to be fully received. HTTP pipelining has proven difficult to implement in existing networks, where old pieces of software coexist with modern versions. HTTP pipelining has been superseded in HTTP/2 with more robust multiplexing requests within a frame.

HTTP Messages

HTTP/1.1 and earlier HTTP messages are human-readable. In HTTP/2, these messages are embedded into a new binary structure, a frame, allowing optimizations like compression of headers and multiplexing. Even if only part of the original HTTP message is sent in this version of HTTP, the semantics of each message is unchanged and the client reconstitutes (virtually) the original HTTP/1.1 request. It is therefore useful to comprehend HTTP/2 messages in the HTTP/1.1 format.
There are two types of HTTP messages, requests and responses, each with its own format.

Requests

An example HTTP request:
A basic HTTP request
Requests consists of the following elements:
  • An HTTP method, usually a verb like GETPOST or a noun like OPTIONS or HEAD that defines the operation the client wants to perform. Typically, a client wants to fetch a resource (using GET) or post the value of an HTML form (using POST), though more operations may be needed in other cases.
  • The path of the resource to fetch; the URL of the resource stripped from elements that are obvious from the context, for example without the protocol (http://), the domain (here developer.mozilla.org), or the TCP port (here 80).
  • The version of the HTTP protocol.
  • Optional headers that convey additional information for the servers.
  • Or a body, for some methods like POST, similar to those in responses, which contain the resource sent.

Responses

An example responses:
Responses consist of the following elements:




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